For many women, the severity of our menstrual cycle can make us feel foreign in our own bodies.
From physical symptoms like bloating and fatigue to emotional waves brought on by mood swings and irritability, 3 out of 4 menstruating women have experienced some form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) in their lifetime. However, what separates normal PMS from a more debilitating variation of these conditions lies in the severity and impact of these symptoms and how it impairs a woman’s ability to function in their daily life — and such is the case of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD).
WHAT IS PMDD?
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) is a severe type of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that brings about a variety of emotional and physical symptoms during the week or two before menstruation. It is often recognized as 'severe PMS’ and typically occurs during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which spans from ovulation to the onset of the period.
“PMS and PMDD are very similar but also very different,” says Dr. Ashanda Saint Jean, an associate professor of obstetrics and gynecology at New York Medical College.
“In terms of PMS syndrome, it is characterized by both physical and behavioral symptoms that occur prior to the onset of menstruation,” she tells xoNecole. “Whereas PMDD is the severity of the symptoms, which then can be characterized by depression, anxiety, mood changes, and sometimes even suicidal ideation. It's the severity of the symptoms which then require medicinal therapy.”
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF PMDD?
One of the main distinctions between PMDD and PMS is how it impairs or disrupts the daily functions and quality of life of the women who experience this condition. “Some of the signs of PMDD can be depression, irritability, and anxiety,” Dr. Saint Jean explains. “You can have the severity in the form of breast pain, bloating, swelling, headaches, but once you have your period, these symptoms usually remit or stop occurring.”
While symptoms of PMDD may vary on an individual basis, they typically show up with PMS symptoms and can be broken up into two categories:
- Mood swings
- Experiencing sadness or tearfulness
- Fatigue or decreased energy levels
- Crying spells
- Less interest in activities you normally enjoy
- Feeling hopeless
- Suicidal feelings
- Feeling angry or irritable
- Feeling anxious, tense, or ‘keyed up’
PHYSICAL AND BEHAVIORAL EXPERIENCES
- Breast tenderness or swelling
- Bloating sensation
- Changes in appetite, including overeating or specific food cravings
- Sleep disturbances
- Muscle and joint pain
- Increased anger or conflicts with others
- Strong emotional response to perceived rejection by others
Although the specific causes of PMDD are yet to be fully understood, research suggests that there is a connection between PMDD and heightened sensitivity to the typical hormonal fluctuations that take place throughout the menstrual cycle.
“It's your body's response to estrogen. There’s a cycle to how your brain sends out signals and that influences your ovaries to produce hormones,” she says, “It’s hypersensitive sensitivity to the elevation of the hormones that can make the body and mind experience symptoms of PMDD.”
HOW IS PMDD DIAGNOSED?
Women who suspect to have symptoms of PMDD can begin their self-screening by taking the International Association for Premenstrual Disorders (IAPMD)’s online screening assessment. Your medical provider will then look for five or more PMDD symptoms, including one mood-related symptom to determine the diagnosis.
Because PMDD is diagnosed based on recurring symptoms, it’s helpful to keep track of your symptoms for at least two full menstrual cycles by using a journal, notebook, or tracking app.
“One's agency is very important and our patients know their bodies,” Dr. Saint Jean says. “It can be something that you may suspect that you have, but I will always advise patients to then have that conversation with their provider (gynecologist or primary care physician).”
“If you’re having any of these symptoms, it’s always a good idea to bring them to the forefront and discuss with your provider and see together how you can arrive at the appropriate diagnosis for you,” she continues.
WHAT ARE TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR PMDD?
Once a diagnosis is made, there are a variety of treatment options that can be prescribed. Many patients may require a mood stabilizer such as a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI), which is a category of medication that increases the levels of serotonin in the brain. Dr. Saint Jean also shares that there is the option of continuous oral contraception, which “increases the intervals of your menstrual cycle,” and allows you to have fewer periods throughout the year.
In all, treatment solely depends on the severity of your symptoms is the advice from your medical provider.
“Not everyone requires to be on an SSRI, but it is helpful for some, especially some patients who have suicidal ideation,” she shares. There are also a variety of lifestyle changes, exercise, and dietary modifications that can aid in decreasing these symptoms. “You may crave salt and sugar, which then can contribute to bloating and water retention; so we advise you to stay away from sugary and salty foods prior to menstruation.”
Struggling with PMDD can feel like a silent battle when you’re experiencing it alone or never knew there was a name for the symptoms that you endure. Thankfully, with the proper tracking and advisory from your primary care physician, PMDD doesn’t have to be something that you suffer through unsupported or untreated — and with these tools, relief could be closer than you think.
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Aley Arion is a writer and digital storyteller from the South, currently living in sunny Los Angeles. Her site, yagirlaley.com, serves as a digital diary to document personal essays, cultural commentary, and her insights into the Black Millennial experience. Follow her at @yagirlaley on all platforms!
This article is in partnership with Sensodyne.
Our teeth are connected to so many things - our nutrition, our confidence, and our overall mood. We often take for granted how important healthy teeth are, until issues like tooth sensitivity or gum recession come to remind us. Like most things related to our bodies, prevention is the best medicine. Here are five things you can do immediately to improve your oral hygiene, prevent tooth sensitivity, and avoid dental issues down the road.
1) Go Easy On the Rough Brushing: Brushing your teeth is and always will be priority number one in the oral hygiene department. No surprises there! However, there is such a thing as applying too much pressure when brushing…and that can lead to problems over time. Use a toothbrush with soft bristles and brush in smooth, circular motions. It may seem counterintuitive, but a gentle approach to brushing is the most effective way to clean those pearly whites without wearing away enamel and exposing sensitive areas of the teeth.
2) Use A Desensitizing Toothpaste: As everyone knows, mouth pain can be highly uncomfortable; but tooth sensitivity is a whole different beast. Hot weather favorites like ice cream and popsicles have the ability to trigger tooth sensitivity, which might make you want to stay away from icy foods altogether. But as always, prevention is the best medicine here. Switching to a toothpaste like Sensodyne’s Sensitivity & Gum toothpaste specifically designed for sensitive teeth will help build a protective layer over sensitive areas of the tooth. Over time, those sharp sensations that occur with extremely cold foods will subside, and you’ll be back to treating yourself to your icy faves like this one!
3) Floss, Rinse, Brush. (And In That Order!): Have you ever heard the saying, “It’s not what you do, but how you do it”? Well, the same thing applies to taking care of your teeth. Even if you are flossing and brushing religiously, you could be missing out on some of the benefits simply because you aren’t doing so in the right order. Flossing is best to do before brushing because it removes food particles and plaque from places your toothbrush can’t reach. After a proper flossing sesh, it is important to rinse out your mouth with water after. Finally, you can whip out your toothbrush and get to brushing. Though many of us commonly rinse with water after brushing to remove excess toothpaste, it may not be the best thing for our teeth. That’s because fluoride, the active ingredient in toothpaste that protects your enamel, works best when it gets to sit on the teeth and continue working its magic. Rinsing with water after brushing doesn’t let the toothpaste go to work like it really can. Changing up your order may take some getting used to, but over time, you’ll see the difference.
4) Stay Hydrated: Upping your water supply is a no-fail way to level up your health overall, and your teeth are no exception to this rule. Drinking water not only helps maintain a healthy pH balance in your mouth, but it also washes away residue and acids that can cause enamel erosion. It also helps you steer clear of dry mouth, which is a gateway to bad breath. And who needs that?
5) Show Your Gums Some Love: When it comes to improving your smile, you may be laser-focused on getting your teeth whiter, straighter, and overall healthier. Rightfully so, as these are all attributes of a megawatt smile; but you certainly don’t want to leave gum health out of the equation. If you neglect your gums, you’ll start to notice the effects of plaque buildup, which can irritate the gums and cause gingivitis, the earliest stage of gum disease. Seeing blood while brushing and flossing is a tell-tale sign that your gums are suffering. You may also experience gum recession — a condition where the gum tissue surrounding your teeth pulls back, exposing more of your tooth. Brushing at least twice a day with a gum-protecting toothpaste like Sensodyne Sensitivity and Gum, coupled with regular dentist visits, will keep your gums shining as bright as those pearly whites.
The Libra woman and Aries man are the divine feminine and divine masculine, coming together as one. The love compatibility between these two is one for the books. These two are opposite signs, however, their differences tend to complement each other well. This is a dynamic relationship where they know how to have a lot of fun together, but also aren’t afraid to deal with the more serious stuff that comes with a relationship.
The Libra woman is looking for her equal in love, someone who is willing to put in the same effort she is, and the Aries man sees Libra as someone he is willing to do that with.
The Love Compatibility Of A Libra Woman And An Aries Man
What attracts a Libra woman and an Aries man to each other?
There is a magnet of attraction pulling these two together, and things tend to move pretty fast in this relationship. The Libra woman is always open to love and her charming nature rarely has any challenges here. The Aries man fights for his independence and doesn’t sacrifice that unless he is completely enamored with someone.
Once the Aries man catches the eye of the Libra woman, he is typically the one to make the first move and this instantly wins the approval of Libra.
These two feel like they have known each other forever when they meet, and this spark between them doesn’t die down easily.
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What is the relationship like between a Libra woman and an Aries man?
The relationship between the Libra woman and the Aries man is one of balance and excitement. The Aries man tends to take on the more dominant role in this relationship and the Libra woman tends to be the more receptive one. Aries is ruled by masculine Mars, and Libra is ruled by feminine Venus. They understand they are coming from two completely different worlds, yet they also instinctively feel this underlying connection to each other and like they could be something each other needs in their lives.
The Libra woman can rely on the Aries man, and the Aries man never has to ask for the love that Libra already knows he needs.
This is a couple that is often reading each other’s minds and wanting to do a lot of the same things. However, not everything is rainbow in this relationship as well, and there are some major differences they have to overcome to make things work. One argument can lead to an explosion between these two, and addressing things when they come up rather than sweeping them under the rug, will be needed to make this relationship long-term.
What is the sex like between a Libra woman and an Aries man?
The sex between a Libra woman and an Aries man is adventurous. These are two cardinal signs with plenty of energy and stamina to keep things exciting in the bedroom. There tends to be a good give and take in this relationship, and their yin and yang energy benefits them when it comes to their sex life.
There is electricity felt between the two of them in this area of their life, and their power of attraction to each other is strong. These are two people who will want to do a lot of things together, including exploring sexually together.
The Aries man will have to be careful with being overly aggressive, however, as the soft Libra woman may not like this energy- it will completely depend on the two individuals at hand. The Libra woman wants to ease into things, the Aries man wants to get going right away. Learning about each other's bodies, and energy, and reading each other’s cues will help with this.
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What makes a relationship between a Libra woman and an Aries man work?
These two genuinely like each other, and that basis is a key factor for success in any relationship. The Aries man is straight to the point, direct, and inspired. The Libra woman admires these characteristics in others, as she is often herself finding her balance in this type of energy as well. Neither sign is overly emotional in a way that turns them off, and they both require a lot of the same things in a committed relationship. They want honesty, fun, good communication, passion, and to be moving towards a common goal together.
The Libra woman and Aries man don’t have a problem being real with each other and this is something they really value within the relationship. They are both very charming, and there is plenty of flirtation and attraction to keep this relationship going. Aries being the protector they are, Libra finds a sense of safety and ease in this energy, and like they have found their match. Overall, this is a well-balanced relationship and one where they don’t have a problem when it comes to compatibility or chemistry in the relationship.
What may cause a Libra woman and an Aries man to break up?
Libra is the lover, Aries is the fighter, and this energy may be tiring for the both of them after time. The Libra woman can be passive to a fault, and the Aries man who is not evolved, may take advantage of that. She will need to be careful with putting Aries’ needs above her own, creating resentment later down the road. The Aries man loves a challenge, and the Libra woman would be up for that game for a little bit, but if she is not being met in the middle, she will begin to look for other places. These two can have a difficult time keeping the peace in the relationship, and there could be a lot of arguments and disagreements here if they both aren’t willing to put their egos or self-pleasing attitudes to the side.
The Libra woman and Aries man are both more sensitive than they appear or come off as. They are also not necessarily the type to dive deep into their emotions and express them to others, even in their relationships. However, this energy can keep the relationship to a surface level than what is needed to progress and grow the relationship, and a sense of openness is required for this couple to work. Libra needs romance, she wants to be wowed. Aries needs to remember this and to always consider her love language.
Overall, this is a successful pairing. They will have their fair share of challenges in the relationship, but nothing they can’t overcome if they are willing to. The trouble will come in when it comes to the longevity of the relationship, keeping Aries excited and Libra in love. However, all in all, there is more power, attraction, and love to keep this relationship together rather than apart. No relationship is perfect, but this one is a little more blessed than most.
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